1. Ogden CL, Carroll MD, Curtin LR, Lamb MM, Flegal KM. Prevalence of High Body Mass Index in US Children and Adolescents, 2007–2008. JAMA 2010;303:242–249.
2. Freedman DS, Mei Z, Srinivasan SR, Berenson GS, Dietz WH. Cardiovascular risk factors and excess adiposity among overweight children and adolescents: the Bogalusa Heart Study. J Pediatr. 2007 Jan;150(1):12–17.e2.
3. Whitaker RC, Wright JA, Pepe MS, Seidel KD, Dietz WH. Predicting obesity in young adulthood from childhood and parental obesity. N Engl J Med 1997; 37(13):869–873.
4. Serdula MK, Ivery D, Coates RJ, Freedman DS. Williamson DF. Byers T. Do obese children become obese adults? A review of the literature. Prev Med 1993;22:167–177.
5. Freedman DS, Khan LK, Dietz WH, Srinivasan SR, Berenson GS. Relationship of childhood overweight to coronary heart disease risk factors in adulthood: The Bogalusa Heart Study. Pediatrics 2001;108:712–718.
6. Mei Z, Grummer-Strawn LM, Pietrobelli A, Goulding A, Goran MI, Dietz WH. Validity of body mass index compared with other body-composition screening indexes for the assessment of body fatness in children and adolescents. Am J Clin Nutr 2002;978–985.
7. Barlow SE and the Expert Committee. Expert committee recommendations regarding the prevention, assessment, and treatment of child and adolescent overweight and obesity: summary report. Pediatrics 2007;120 Supplement December 2007: S164–S192.
8. Ogden CL, Flegal KM, Carroll MD, Johnson CL. Prevalence and trends in overweight among US children and adolescents, 1999–2000. JAMA 2002;288(14):1728–1732.
9. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Healthy People 2010. 2nd edition. 2 volumes. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2000.
10. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The Surgeon General's Call to Action to Prevent and Decrease Overweight and Obesity. Rockville, MD: Public Health Service, Office of the Surgeon General, 2001.
11. World Health Organization. WHO Technical Report Series 894: Obesity: Preventing and Managing the Global Epidemic. A Report of a WHO Consultation. Geneva, 2000.
12. Farooqi IS, O'Rahilly S. Recent advances in the genetics of severe obesity. Arch Dis Child 2000;83:31–34.
13. LeStunff C, Fallin D, Bougneres P. Paternal transmission of the very common class I INS VNTR alleles predisposes to childhood obesity. Nat Genet 2001;29:96–99.
14. Bouchard C, Perusse L, Rice T, Rao DC. The genetics of human obesity. In Bray GA, Bouchard C, James WPT, eds. Handbook of obesity. New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc., 1998: 157–190.
15. Institute of Medicine. Preventing Childhood Obesity-Health in the Balance. The National Academies Press, Washington, DC; 2005.
16. Ludwig DS, Peterson KE, Gortmaker SL. Relation between consumption of sugar-sweetened drinks and childhood obesity: a prospective, observational analysis. Lancet 2001;357:505–508.
17. Welsh JA, Cogswell ME, Rogers S, Rockett H, Mei Z, Grummer-Strawn LM. Overweight among low-income preschool children associated with the consumption of sweet drinks: Missouri 1999–2002. Pediatrics 2005;155:e223–e229.
18. Malik VS, Schulze MB, Hu FB. Intake of sugar-sweetened beverages and weight gain: a systematic review. Am J Clin Nutr 2006;84:274–288.
19. Sherry B. Food behaviors and other strategies to prevent and treat pediatric overweight. Intl J Obesity 2005;29:S116–S126.
20. Birch LL, McPhee L, Sullivan S. Children's food intake following drinks sweetened with sucrose or aspartame: time course effects. Physiol Behav 1989;45:387–395.
21. Louis-Sylvestre J, Tournier A, Verger P, Chabert M, Delorme B, Hossenlop J. Learned caloric adjustment of human intake. Appetite 1989;12:95–103.
22. DiMeglio DP, Mattes RD. Liquid versus solid carbohydrate; effects on food intake and body weight. Intl J Obes Relat Metab Disord 2000;24:794–800.
23. Crombie C, Anderson GH, Leiter LA, et al. Effects of sucrose pre-load on subjective measures of appetite and food intake in children. In Black RM, Anderson GH. Sweeteners, food intake and selection. In Fernstrom JD, Miller GD, eds. Cited in Appetite and Body Weight Regulation: Sugar, Fat and Macronutrient Substitutes. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press 1994;125–136.
24. Strong WB, Malina RM, Blimkie CJ, et al. Evidence based physical activity for school-age youth. J. Pediatr 2005;146:732–737.
25. Malina RM. Tracking of physical activity and physical fitness across the lifespan. Res Q Exerc Sport 1996;67:S48–S57.
26. Lowry R, Brener N, Lee S, Epping J, Fulton J, Eaton D. Participation in high school physical education — United States, 1991–2003. MMWR 2004; 53(36): 844–847, 2004.
27. Eaton DK, Kann L, Kinchen S, Ross J, Hawkins J, Harris WA, et al., Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance — United States, 2005. MMWR Surveillance Summary 2006; SS-5 (55).
28. Roberts D, Foehr U, Rideout V. Generation M: media in the lives of 8 to 18 year-olds. The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation; Menlo Park, 2005.
29. Dietz WH, Gortmaker SL. Do we fatten our children at the television set? Obesity and television viewing in children and adolescents. Pediatrics 1985;75:807–812.
30. Gortmaker SL, Must A, Sobol AM, Peterson K, Colditz GA, Dietz WH. "Television viewing as a cause of increasing obesity among children in the United States, 1986–1990." Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 1996;150(4):356–62. (http://archpedi.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/abstract/150/4/356)
31. Crespo CJ, Smit E, Troiano RP, Bartlett SJ, Macera CA, Andersen RE. Television watching, energy intake, and obesity in US children: results from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988–1994. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2001;155 (3):360–365.
32. Lowry R, Wechsler H, Galuska DA, Fulton JE, Kann L. Television viewing and its associations with overweight, sedentary lifestyle, and insufficient consumption of fruits and vegetables among U.S. high school students: differences by race, ethnicity, and gender. J Sch Health 2002;72:413–421.
33. Robinson TN, Hammer LD, Killen JD, et al. Does television viewing increase obesity and reduce physical activity? Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses among adolescent girls. Pediatrics 1993;91:273–280.
34. Coon KA, Tucker KL. Television and children's consumption patterns. A review of the literature. Minerva Pediatr 2002;54:423–436.
35. Francis LA, Birch LL. Does eating during television viewing affect preschool children's intake? J Am Diet Assoc 2006;106:598–600.
36. Treuth MS, Butte NF, Wong WW. Effects of familial predisposition to obesity on energy expenditure in multiethnic prepubertal girls. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;71:893–900.
37. National Research Council and the Institute of Medicine. Working Families and Growing Kids: Caring for Children and Adolescents, 2003. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.
38. Morland K, Wing S, Diez Roux A, Poole C. Neighborhood characteristics associated with the location of food stores and food service places. Am J Prev Med 2002;1:23–29.
39. Dietz W. Health consequences of obesity in youth: Childhood predictors of adult disease. Pediatrics 1998;101:518–525.
40. Swartz MB and Puhl R. Childhood obesity: a societal problem to solve. Obesity Reviews 2003; 4(1):57–71.
41. Rodriguez MA, Winkleby MA, Ahn D, Sundquist J, Kraemer HC. Identification of populations subgroups of children and adolescents with high asthma prevalence: findings from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2002;156:269–275.
42. Luder E, Melnik TA, Dimaio M. Association of being overweight with greater asthma symptoms in inner city black and Hispanic children. J Pediatr 1998;132:699–703.
43. Mallory GB, Fiser DH, Jackson R. Sleep-associated breathing disorders in morbidly obese children and adolescents. J Pediatr 1989;115:892–897.
44. Fagot-Campagna A, Narayan KMV, Imperatore G. Type 2 diabetes in children: exemplifies the growing problem of chronic diseases [Editorial]. BMJ 2001;322:377–378.
45. Must A, Anderson SE. Effects of obesity on morbidity in children and adolescents. Nutr Clin Care 2003;6:1;4–11.
46. Ogden CL, Carroll MD, Flegal KM. High Body Mass Index for Age Among US Children and Adolescents, 2003–2006. JAMA 2008;299:2401–2405
47. World Health Organization (2000) Obesity: Preventing and Managing the Global Epidemic. WHO Obesity Technical Report Series 894: World Health Organization Geneva, Switzerland.
48. World Health Organization (1995) Physical Status: The Use and Interpretation of Anthropometry. Technical Report Series 854: World Health Organization Geneva, Switzerland.
49.Rose, G. (1991) Population distributions of risk and disease. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 1: 37–40.
50.Willett, W. C., Dietz, W. H., Colditz, G. A. (1999) Guidelines for healthy weight. N Engl J Med 341: 427–434. | Article | PubMed | ISI | ChemPort |
51.World Health Organization/International Association for the Study of Obesity/International Obesity Takforce. The Asia-Pacific perspective: redefining obesity and its treatment. Available at: http://www.idi.org.au/obesity report.htm.
52.Law, C. M., Shiell, A. W. (1996) Is blood pressure inversely related to birth weight? The strength of evidence from a systematic review of the literature. J Hypertens 14: 935–41. | PubMed | ISI | ChemPort |
53.Huxley, R. R., Shiell, A. W., Law, C. M. (2000) The role of size at birth and postnatal catch-up growth in determining systolic blood pressure: a systematic review of the literature. J Hypertens 18: 815–831. | Article | PubMed | ISI | ChemPort |
54.James, W. P. T., Norum, K., Smitasiri, S., et al. (2000) Ending malnutrition by 2020: an agenda for change in the millennium: final report to the ACC/SCN by the Commission on the Nutrition Challenges of the 21st Century. Food Nutr Bull 21(suppl): 1–88.
55.Schroeder, D. G., Martorell, R., Flores, R. (1999) Infant and child growth and fatness and fat distribution in Guatemalan adults. Am J Epidemiol 149: 177–185. | PubMed | ChemPort |
56.Murray, C. J., Lopez, A. D. (1994) Global and regional cause-of-death patterns in 1990. Bull World Health Organ 72: 447–80.
57.State of Victoria (1999) Victorian Burden of Disease Study: Morbidity Public Health Division, Department of Human Services Melbourne Victoria, Australia.
58.James, W. P. T., Reeds, P. J. (1997) Nutrient partitioning. Bray, GA Bouchard, C James, WPT eds. Handbook on Obesity 555–71. Marcel Dekker Inc. New York, NY.
59.Bray, G. A., Popkin, B. M. (1998) Dietary fat intake does affect obesity rate. Am J Clin Nutr 68: 1157–1173. | PubMed | ISI | ChemPort |
60.Peña M., Bacallao J., eds. Obesity and Poverty (2000) 41–9. Pan American Health Organization Washington, DC. Scientific publication 576.
61.Cole, T. J., Bellizzi, M. C., Flegal, K. M., Dietz, W. H. (2000) Establishing a standard definition for child overweight and obesity worldwide: international survey. Br Med J 320: 1240–1243. | Article | ISI | ChemPort |
62.Dietz, W. H., Bellizzi, M. C. (1999) Assessment of childhood and adolescent obesity. Am J Clin Nutr 70(suppl): 117–75S.
63.Must, A., Dallal, G. E., Dietz, W. H. (1991) Reference data for obesity: 85th and 95th percentiles of body mass index (wt/ht2) and triceps skinfold thickness. Am J Clin Nutr 53: 839–846. | PubMed | ISI | ChemPort |
64.Cole, T. J., Green, P. J. (1992) Smoothing reference centile curves: the LMS method and penalized likelihood. Stat Med 11: 1305–1319. | Article | PubMed | ISI | ChemPort |
65.Guillaume, M. (1999) Defining obesity in childhood: current practice. Am J Clin Nutr 70(suppl): 126–30S.
66.Reilly, J. J., Dorosty, A. R., Emmett, P. M., the ALSPAC Study Team (2000) Identification of the obese child: adequacy of the body mass index for clinical practice and epidemiology. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 24: 1623–7. | Article | PubMed | ChemPort |
67.Guo, S. S., Chumlea, W. C. (1999) Tracking of body mass index in children in relation to overweight in adulthood. Am J Clin Nutr 70(suppl): 145–18S.
68.Rolland-Cachera, M. F., Deheeger, M., Guilloud-Bataille, M., et al. (1987) Tracking the development of adiposity from one month of age to adulthood. Ann Hum Biol 14: 219–229. | Article | PubMed | ChemPort |
69.Power, C., Lake, J. K., Cole, T. J. (1997) Measurement and long-term health risks of child and adolescent fatness. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 21: 507–526. | Article | PubMed | ChemPort |
70.Parsons, T. J., Power, C., Logan, S., Summerbell, C. D. (1999) Childhood predictors of adult obesity: a systematic review. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 23(suppl): S1–107. | PubMed |
71.Barlow, S. E., Dietz, W. H. (1998) Obesity evaluation and treatment: expert committee recommendations. Pediatrics 102: 1–11. | Article | PubMed |